The Listol ingredients are a collection of natural elements which individually play their part in helping to control ADHD. Below is a list of each ingredient and what it does. Their are also reference notes below to show where the research statements were taken from
Vitamin B6. Pyridoxine is essential for proper function of the nervous system, so it comes as no surprise that this vitamin can reduce central nervous system excitability in children.
Researchers conducted a clinical study where 52 hyperexcitable children were given a regimen of vitamin B6 and magnesium for 3-24 weeks. The results showed that in all patients, symptoms of hyperexcitability (physical aggressivity, instability, scholar attention, hypertony, spasm, myoclony) were reduced after 1 to 6 months treatment (1)
Iron. Research indicates that iron deficiency is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.
Markers of iron status are significantly lower in children with ADHD than healthy controls (2). As well, lower serum values of ferritin are directly correlated with severity of symptoms and cognitive deficits. Treatment with iron in children with ADHD has shown improvements in the Conners Rating Scale for Parents (3).
Magnesium. In a study of 116 children with ADHD magnesium deficiency was observed in 95% of the subjects. Analysis of the data showed a correlation between levels of magnesium and the quotient of development to freedom from distractibility (4).
A Supplementation with magnesium for 6 months in children who have ADHD and magnesium deficiency has demonstrated decreased hyperactivity in a controlled trial (5). Decreased hyperexcitabilty has also been established with magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation (1).
Zinc. Another essential mineral, zinc has also been linked to ADHD.
A study conducted to explore the relationship of zinc nutrition to the severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a middle-class American sample with well-diagnosed ADHD showed that serum zinc levels correlated at with parent-teacher-rated inattention (6).
A double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of supplementation with zinc plus methylphenidate (pharmaceutical treatment) for 6 weeks in children with ADHD concluded that Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores improved when compared to placebo plus methylphenidate (7).
Another double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of supplementation with zinc sulfate alone demonstrated zinc was superior to placebo in reducing symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired socialization in patients with ADHD, and was well tolerated (8).
Copper. When supplementing with zinc it is always important to take additional copper to prevent deficiency of this trace mineral, as zinc and copper compete for absorption.
Furthermore, copper levels are observed to be lower in children with hyperactivity (9).
Phosphatidylserine. An essential phospholipid, phosphatidylserine can ameliorate symptoms of ADHD. An in-office trial of phosphatidylserine supplementation for up to 4 months showed benefit in 90% of cases of ADHD treated in a physician�s office, most notably with learning and attention improvements (10, 11).
Di-Methyl Glycine. Abnormal glucose metabolism is a proposed contributor to ADHD and treatment with dimethyl glycine may improve symptoms of hypoglycemia, which can occur in some patients with ADHD.
Glycine. Glycine is a basic amino acid which is vital for proper nervous system function. Glycine supplementation in animals has been shown to reduce hyperactivity through dopaminergic pathwaws (12,13). In one case study, oral treatment with glycine improved hyperactivity in a young boy (14).
GABA Powder. GABA pathways in the brain appear to play a role in certain cognitive disorders like ADHD. Researchers have proposed using pharmaceutical GABA enhancers to treat conditions including ADHD (15).
DMAE Bitartatrate. DMAE is a precursor for phosphatidylcholine, an important phospholipid in the brain. Supplementation with DMAE has demonstrated improvements in hyperkinesis, an older term for ADHD (16).
Huperzine A Extract. This natural compound is drawing much attention for its effects on cognitive function, enhancing memory and treating cognitive deficits (17,18). A double blind placebo controlled trial of huperzine A supplementation in patients with cognitive deficits of Alzheimer�s type showed it is a safe and effective medicine, improving cognition, behavior, activities of daily living and mood (19).
As you can see, each ingredient has been chosen due to its known effectiveness. Listol makes use of all this and combines in into an easy to use supplement.
1. Mousain-Bosc M et al. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):545S-548S.
2. Konofal E et al. Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Dec;158(12):1113-5.
3. Sever Y et al. Iron treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A preliminary report. Neuropsychobiology. 1997 ;35(4) :178-80.
4. Kozielec T and Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):143-8.
5. Starobrat-Hermelin B and Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):149-56.
6. Arnold LE et al. Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher- rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Aug ;15(4) :628-36.
7. Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]. BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Apr 8;4:9.
8. Bilici M et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;28(1):181-90.
9. Kozielec T, Strobrat-Hermelin B, Kotkowiak L. [Deficiency of certain trace elements in children with hyperactivity] Psychiatr Pol. 1994 May-Jun;28(3):345-53.
10. Kidd PM. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Oct;5(5):402-28.
11. Ryser CA, Kidd PM. Benefits of PS (phosphatidylserine) against attention deficit in a preliminary study. Lancet (Letter in preparation).
12. Quackenbush EJ et al. Hypoglycinaemia and psychomotor delay in a child with xeroderma pigmentosum. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Dec;22(8):915-24.
13. Shin KW. Inhibitory effects of glycine on morphine-induced hyperactivity, reverse tolerance and postsynaptic dopamine receptor supersensitivity in mice. Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Dec;26(12):1074-8.
14. Etchepareborda MC. [Models of drug treatment in the attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity]Rev Neurol. 2002 Feb;34 Suppl 1:S98-S106.
15. Kosten TR, Kosten TA. New medication strategies for comorbid substance use and bipolar affective disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Nov 15;56(10):771-7.
16. Re O. 2-dimethylaminoethanol(deanol): a brief review of its clinical efficacy and postulated mechanism of action. Curr Ther Res1974;16:1238-1240.
17. Xu Z et al. Effects of a memory enhancing peptide on cognitive abilities of brain-lesioned mice: additivity with huperzine A and relative potency to tacrine. J Pept Sci. 2005 Jun 7; [Epub ahead of print].
18. Wang LS et al. Huperzine A attenuates cognitive deficits and brain injury in neonatal rats after hypoxia-ischemia. Brain Res. 2002 Sep 13;949(1-2):162-70.
19. Zhang A et al. [Clinical efficacy and safety of huperzine Alpha in treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial]Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002 Jul 25;82(14):941-4.